Navigation

Gender Jurisprudence and International Criminal Law Bibliography

The following bibliography was created as recommended reading on the treatment of gender and sexual-based crimes in international humanitarian and international criminal law.

1.Xabier Agirre Aranburu, Sexual Violence Beyond Reasonable Doubt: Using Pattern Evidence and Analysis for International Cases, 23 LEIDEN J. INT’L L. 609-627 (2010).
2.Carmen M. Argibay, Sexual Slavery and the ‘Comfort Women’ of World War II, BERKLEY J. INT’L L. 22(2001).
3. Barbara Arneil, Women as wives, servants and slaves: Rethinking the public/private divide, CANADIAN J. POLITICAL SCIENCE 34:1(2001).
4. Kelly Dawn Askin, Gender Crimes Jurisprudence in the ICTR: Positive Developments, 3 J. INT’L CRIM. JUST. 1007 (2005).
5. Kelly D. Askin, Prosecuting Wartime Rape and Other Gender-Related Crimes Under International Law: Extraordinary Advances, Enduring Obstacles, 21 BERKLEY J. INT’L L. 288 (2003).
6. Kelly D. Askin, Crimes Within the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, 10 CRIM. L. F. 33, 41 (1999).
7. Kelly D. Askin, The Quest for Post-Conflict Gender Justice, 41 COLUM. J. of TRANSNAT’L L. 509 (2003).
8. Kelly D. Askin, A Decade of the Development of Gender Crimes in International Courts and Tribunals: 1993 to 2003, 11 HUM. RTS. BRIEF 16 (2004).
9. Kelly D. Askin & Dorean M. Koenig, International Criminal Law and the International Criminal Court Statute: Crimes Against Women, 2 WOMEN & INT’L HUM. RTS. L. 3, 9 (Kelly D. Askin & Dorean M. Koenig eds., 2000).
10. Sita Balthazar, Gender Crimes and the International Criminal Tribunals, 10 Gonz. J. INT’l L. 43 (2006).

11. Barbara Bedont & Katherine Hall-Martinez, Ending Impunity for Gender Crimes Under the International Criminal Court, 6 BROWN J. World Aff. 65 (1999).
12. Doris Buss, The curious Visibility of Wartime Rape: Gender and Ethnicity in International Criminal Law. 25 WINDSOR JOURNAL OF ACCESS TO JUSTICE (2007).
13. Andrew Byrns, Women, Feminism and International Human Rights Law- Methodological Myopia, Fundamental Laws or Meaningful Marginalization? Some Current Issues. AUSTRALIAN YEARBOOK OF INT’L L. 12 (1988).
14. Nancy B. Cabelus & Gary T. Sheridan, “Forensic Investigation of Sex Crimes In Colombia,” JOURNAL OF FORENSIC NURSING, 3, nos. 3 & 4 (2007).
15. Kristin Campbell, The Gender of Transitional Justice: Law, Sexual Violence and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 1 INT’L J. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE 411 (2007).
16. Cynthia Cockburn, Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. Washington D.C.: World Bank: 10 and 11 June 1999.
17. Alison Cole, Prosecutor v. Gacumbitsi: The New Definition for Prosecuting Rape under International Law, INT’L CRIM. L. REV. 8:1-2 (2008).
18. Rhonda Copelon, Surfacing Gender: Re-Engraving Crimes Against Women in Humanitarian Law, 5 HASTINGS WOMEN’S L.J. 243 (1994).
19. Rhonda Copelon, Women and War Crimes, 69 ST. JOHN’S L. REV. 61 (1995).
20. Rhonda Copelon, Gender Crimes as War Crimes: Integrating Crimes against Women into International Criminal Law, 46 MCGILL L. J. 217 (2000).

21. Chris Coulter, Being a Bush Wife: Women’s Lives Through War and Peace in Northern Sierra Leone, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (2006).
22. Fiona De Londras, Prosecuting Sexual Violence in the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the Former Yugoslavia, University College Dublin Law Research Paper No. 06/2009.
23. Carla Del Ponte, Investigation and Prosecution of Large-Scale Crimes at the International Level, 4 J. INT’L CRIM. JUST. 539 (2006).
24. Teresa Doherty, Developments in the Prosecution of Gender-Based Crimes—The Special Court for Sierra Leone Experience, 17 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL’Y & L. 327 (2008).
25. Ustinia Dolgopo & Snehal Paranjape, Comfort women: An Unfinished Ordeal: Report of a Mission, Geneva: International Commission of Jurists (1994).
26. Nicola Eva Erb, Gender-Based Crimes Under the Draft Statute for the Permanent International Criminal Court, 29 COLUM. HUM. RTS L. REV. 401 (1998).
27. Karen Engle, Feminism and its (Dis)contents: Criminalizing Wartime Rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 99 AM. J. INT’L L. 778 (2005).
28. Katherine M. Franke, Gendered Subjects of Transitional Justice, 15 COLUM. J. GENDER & L. 813 (2006).
29. Micaela Frulli, Advancing International Criminal Law: The Special Court for Sierra Leone Recognizes Forced Marriage as a “New” Crime Against Humanity, 6 J. INT’L CRIM. JUST. 1033 (2008).
30. Anne Gallagher, Ending the Marginalization: Strategies for Incorporating Women into the United Nations Human Rights System, Human Rights Quarterly , Vol. 19 (1997).
31.Judith Gardam, The Neglected Aspect of Women and Armed Conflict: Progressive Development of the Law, 53 NETH. INT’L L. REV. 197 (2005).
32.Richard Goldstone, Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime, 34 CASE W. RES. J. INT’L L. 277 (2002).
33.Jennifer Green, Rhonda Copelon & Patrick Cotter, Affecting the Rules for the Prosecution of Rape and Other Gender Based Violence Before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: A Feminist Proposal and Critique, 5 HASTINGS WOMEN’S L. J. 171 (1994).
34.Rebecca L. Haffajee, Prosecuting Crimes of Rape and Sexual Violence at the ICTR: The Application of Joint Criminal Enterprise Theory, 29 HARV. J.L. & GENDER 201 (2006).
35.Janet Halley, Rape at Rome: Feminist Inventions in the Criminalization of Sex-Related Violence in Positive International Criminal Law, 30 MICH. J. INT’L L. 1 (2009).
36.Janet Halley, Rape in Berlin: Reconsidering the Criminalisation of Rape in the International Law of Armed Conflict, 9 MELB. J. INT’L L. 78 (2008).
37.Nicola Henry, Witness to Rape: The Limits and Potential of International War Crimes Trials for Victims of Wartime Sexual Violence, 3 INT’L J. TRANSITIONAL JUST. 114 (2009).
38.Ruth Jacobson, Complicating ‘Complexity’: Integrating Gender Into the Analysis of the Mozambican Conflict. Third World Quarterly (1999).
39.Neha Jain, Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity, 6 J. of INT’L CRIM. JUST. 1013 (2008).
40.Joshua H. Joseph, Gender and International Criminal Law: How the International Criminal Court Can Bring Justice to Victims of Sexual Violence, 18 TEX. J. WOMEN & L. 61 (2008).
41.Adrienne Kalosieh, Note, Consent to Genocide? The ICTY’s Improper Use of the Consent Paradigm to Prosecute Genocidal Rape in Foca, 24 WOMEN’S RTS. L. Rep. 121 (2003).
42.Tina R. Karkera, The International Criminal Court’s Protection of Women: The Hands of Justice at Work, 12 Am. U. J. GENDER, SOC. POL’Y & L. 197 (2004).
43.Michelle S. Kelsall & Shanee Stepakoff, “When We Wanted to Talk About Rape”: Silencing Sexual Violence at the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 1 INT’L J. of Transitional JUST. 355 (2007).
44.Stefan Kirchner, Hell in Paradise – War, Rape and Failure in the Congo, University of Lapland, Faculty of Law; Pantheon Sorbonne (2008).
45.Peggy Kuo, Prosecuting Crimes of Sexual Violence, 34 CASE W. RES. J. INT’L L. 305 (2002).
46.Amy G. Lewis, Gender-Based Violence Among Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa, GA. IMMIGR. L. J. 20 (2006).
47.Diane Luping, Investigation and Prosecution of Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes Before the International Criminal Court, 17 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL’Y & L. 431 (2008).
48.Larry May and Robert Strikwerda, Men in Groups: Collective Responsibility for Rape, Hypatia, 9:2 (1994).
49.Dyan Mazurana & Khristopher Carlson, From Combat to Community: Women and Girls of Sierra Leone, Washington, D.C.: Women in waging pace, 2004.
50.Theodor Meron, Rape as a Crime Under International Humanitarian Law, 87 AM. J. of INT’L L. 423 (1993).
51.Theodor Meron, Reflections on the Prosecution of War Crimes by International Tribunals, 100 AM. J. INT’L L. 551 (2006).
53. C. Mibenge, Investigating Outcomes of a Limited Gender Analysis of Enslavement in Post conflict Justice Processes, JOURNAL OF PEACEBUILDING AND DEVELOPMENT 5:3, 2011.
54. C. Mibenge. Gender, Ethnicity and Exclusion: The Right to a Remedy for Victims of Wartime Rape, in ed. Joaquín González Ibáñez, PROTECCIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE DERECHOS HUMANOS Y ESTADO DE DERECHO, 2010.
55. David S. Mitchel, The Prohibition of Rape in International Humanitarian Law As A Norm of Jus Cogens: Clarifying the Doctrine, DUKE J. COMP. & INT’L L. (2005).
56. Madeline Morris, By Force of Arms: Rape, War, and Military Culture, 45 DUKE L. J. 651-781 (1996).
57. Brook Sari Moshan, Women, War, and Words: The Gender Component in the Permanent International Criminal Court’s Definition of Crimes Against Humanity, 22 FORDHAM INT’L L.J. 154 (1998).
58. Kelli Muddel, Capturing Women’s Experiences of Conflict: Transitional Justice in Sierra Leone, MICH. ST. J. INT’L L. 15 (2007).
59. Cecilia Ntombizodwa Mzvondiwa, The Role of Women in the Reconstruction and Building of Peace in Rwanda: Peace Prospects for the Great Lakes Region, African Security Review Vol 16:1 (2007).
60. Fionnuala Ni Aolain & Rooney Eilish, Gendered Aspects of Transition for Women, THE INT’L J. OF TRANSITIONAL JUST., Vol.1, Issue 3 (2007).
61.Fionnuala Ní Aoláin & Rooney Eilish, Women, Security and the Patriarchy of Internationalized Transitional Justice. Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-40 (2008).
62. Fionnuala Ní Aoláin & Rooney Eilish, Women, Security and the Patriarchy of Internationalized Transitional Justice, Minneapolis, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, No. 08-40, SSRN, (2008).
63. Catherine N. Niarchos, Women, War, and Rape: Challenges Facing the International Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia, 17.4 Hum. Rts. Q. 649 (1995).
64. Binaifer Nowrojee, ‘Your Justice is Too Slow’: Will the ICTR Fail Rwanda’s Rape Victims? Geneva: UN Research Institute for social Development, occasional paper 10, (2005).
65. Noelle N.R. Quenviet, Sexual Offenses in Armed Conflict and International Law, Ardsley, N.Y. Transnational, 2005.
66.Alex Obote-Odora, Rape and Sexual Violence in International Law: ICTR Contribution, 12 NEW ENG. J. INT’L & COMP. L. 135 (2005).
67.Valerie Oosterveld, Lessons from the Special Court for Sierra Leone on the Prosecution of Gender-Based Crimes, 17 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL’Y & L. 407 (2009).
68.Valerie Oosterveld, Sexual Slavery and the International Criminal Court: Advancing International Law, 25 MICH. J. INT’L L. 605 (2004).
69.Valerie Oosterveld, The Definition of “Gender” in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Step Forward or Back for International Criminal Justice? 18 HARV. HUM RTS. J. 55 (2005).
70.Valerie Oosterveld, Gender, Prosecution, and the International Criminal Court: Refugee Law’s Relevance to the Crime Against Humanity of Gender-Based Persecution, 17 DUKE J. OF COMP. & INT’L L. 49 (2006).
71.Amy Palmer, An Evolutionary Analysis of Gender-Based War Crimes and the Continued Tolerance of “Forced Marriage”, 7 NW. U.J. INT’L HUM. RTS. 133 (2009).
72.Physicians for Human Rights, War Related Sexual violence in Sierra Leone: a population based assessment, Boston: Physicians for Human Rights (2002).
73.Jeffery P. Pokorak, Rape as a Badge of Slavery: The Legal History of and Remedies for Prosecutorial Race of Victim Charging Disparities. NEV. L. J. 7:1 (2006-2007).
74.Susan M. Pritchett, Entrenched Hegemony, Efficient Procedure, or Selective Justice?: An Inquiry into Charges for Gender-Based Violence at the International Criminal Court, 17 TRANSNAT’L L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 265 (2008).
75.Noya Rimalt, Stereotyping Women, Individualizing Harassment: the Dignitary Paradigm of Sexual Harassment Law Between the Limits of Law and the Limits of Feminism, YALE J.L. & FEMINISM 19 (2008).
76.Heidy Rombouts, Gender and Reparations in Rwanda, New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2006.
77.Stephanie N. Sackellares, From Bosnia to Sudan: Sexual Violence in Modern Armed Conflict, 20 WIS. WOMEN’S L.J. 137 (2005).
78.Susana SáCouto, Advances and Missed Opportunities in the International Prosecution of Gender-Based Crimes, 15 MICH. ST. J. INT’L L. 137 (2007).
79.Susana SáCouto & Katherine Cleary, The Importance of Effective Investigation of Sexual Violence and Gender-Based Crimes at the International Criminal Court, 17 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL’Y & L. 337 (2009).
80.Beth Van Schaack, The Crime of Aggression and Humanitarian Intervention on Behalf of Women, 3 INT’L CRIM. L. REV. 477 (2011).
81.Beth Van Schaak, Obstacles on the Road to Gender Justice: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda as Object Lesson, 17 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL’Y & L. 361 (2008).
82.Beth Van Schaack, Command Responsibility: The Anatomy of Proof in Romagoza v. Garcia, 36 U.C. DAVIS L. REV. 1213 (2003).
83.Wolfgang Schomburg and Ines Peterson, Genuine Consent to Sexual Violence under International Criminal Law, 101 AM. J. OF INT’L L. 121 (2007).
84.Mary D. Schneider, About Women, War and Darfur: The Continuing Quest for Gender Violence Justice, 83 N.D. L. REV. 915 (2007).
85.Patricia V. Sellers, Gender Strategy is Not a Luxury for International Courts, 17 AM. U.J. GENDER SOC. POL’Y & L. 301 (2008).
86.Patricia V. Sellers & Kaoru Okuizumi, International Prosecution of Sexual Assaults, 7 TRANSNAT’L L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 45 (1997).
87.Patricia V. Sellers, The Cultural Value of Sexual Violence, 93 AM. SOC’Y INT’L L. PROC. 312 (1999).
88.Patricia V. Sellers, Gender Strategy is not a Luxury for International Courts, 17 AM. U. J. GENDER, SOC. POL’Y & L. 301 (2009).
89.Leslie Shanks & Michael Schull, Rape in War: the Humanitarian Response, CMAJ, vol. 163 no.9. (2000).
91. Sandesh Sivakumaran, Sexual Violence Against Men in armed conflicts, THE EUROPEAN J. OF INT’L L. VOL. 18 no. 2, 2007.
92. Cindy S. Snyder, Wesley J. Gabbard, J. Dean May and Nihada Zulcic,, On the Battleground of Women’s Bodies : Mass Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina AFFILIA, VOL. 21 (2006).
93. Shanee Stepkoff & Michelle Staggs Kelsall, When we Wanted to Talk about Rape: Silencing Sexual Violence at the Special Court of Sierra Leone. INT’L J. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE 1:3 (2007).
94.Shana Swiss & Joan E. Giller, Rape as a Crime of War: A Medical Perspective, 270 JAMA 612 (1993).
95.Yuki Tanaka, Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II and the US Occupation, London: Routledge (2002).
96.B. Don Taylor, Witness Proofing in International Criminal Law: Is Widening Procedural Divergence in International Criminal Tribunals a Cause for Concern? (2008), http://www.isrcl.org/Papers/2008/Taylor.pdf.
97.Christopher Taylor, A gendered Genocide: Tutsi Women and Hutu Extremists in the 1994 Rwanda Genocide, PolAR 42-54 (1999).
98. Tamara L. Tompkins, Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime: Speaking the Unspeakable, 70 NOTRE DAME L. REV. 845 (1995).
99.Mats Utas, Victimcy, Girlfriending, Soldiering: Tactic Agency in a Young Woman’s Social Navigation of the Liberian War Zone, ANTHROPOLOGICAL QUARTERLY, vol. 78, no 2, 2005.
100.Patricia Viseur-Sellers, The context of Sexual Violence: Sexual Violence as Violations of Humanitarian Law in Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: the Experience of International and National Courts, 263-323. THE HAGUE KLUWER LAW INTERNATIONAL, (2001).
101. Patricia Viseur-Sellers, Sexual Violence and Peremptory Norms: the Legal Value of Rape, 34.3 CASE W. RES. J. INT’L L. 287-303 (2002).
102. Elisabeth Jean Wood, Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When Is Wartime Rape Rare? Vol. 37.1 POLITICS & SOCIETY (2009).
103. Elisabeth Jean Wood, Variation in Sexual Violence during War, Politics and Society, VOL 34 (2006).
104. Stephanie K. Wood, A Woman Scorned for the “Least Condemned” War Crime: Precedent and Problems with Prosecuting Rape as a Serious Crime in the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 13 COLUM. J. GENDER & L. 274 (2004).

BOOKS:
1. KELLY D. ASKIN, WAR CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN: PROSECUTION IN INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS (1997).
2. KELLY D. ASKIN, THE JURISPRUDENCE OF INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS: SECURING GENDER JUSTICE FOR SOME SURVIVORS (Helen Durham & Tracey Gurd, eds., 2005).
3. M. CHERIF BASSIOUNI, CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 349 (1999).
4. Fatou Bensouda, Gender and Sexual Violence Under the Rome Statute, in FROM HUMAN RIGHTS TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: STUDIES IN HONOUR OF AN AFRICAN JURIST, the Late Judge Laity Kama (Emmanuel Decaux et al. eds., 2007).
5. Ruth Birungi, Gender And Sexual Based Violence Among Refugees: A Sase of Urban Refugees, in INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL PROSECUTION OF CRIMES UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW 385-421 (Horst Fischer, Claus Kresss, & Sacha Rolf Luder, Berlin: Berlin Verlag, 2001).
6. Jelke Boesten, Marrying Your Rapist: Domesticated War Crimes in Peru, In GENDERED PEACE: WOMEN’S STRUGGLES FOR POST-WAR JUSTICE AND RECONCILIATION (Donna Pankhurst ed., 2008).
7. Machteld Boot, Crimes Against Humanity, Article 7(1)(g): Rape … or Any Other Form of Sexual Violence of Comparable Gravity, in COMMENTARY ON THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article 159, 207 (Otto Triffterer ed., Christopher Hall rev., 2d ed. 2008).
8. Cherie Booth, Prospects and Issues for the International Criminal Court: Lessons From Yugoslavia and Rwanda, in FROM NUREMBERG TO THE HAGUE: THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE 157 (Philippe Sands ed., 2003).
9. ANNE-MARIE DE BROUWER, SUPRANATIONAL CRIMINAL PROSECUTION OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE: THE ICC AND THE PRACTICE OF THE ICTY AND THE ICTR (2005).

10. ANNE-MARIE DE BROUWER, CHARLOTTE KU, RENEE ROMKENS, LARISSA VAN DEN HERIK, SEXUAL VIOLENCE AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRIME: INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES (2013).
11. SUSAN BROWNMILLER, AGAINST OUR WILL: MEN, WOMEN AND RAPE (1975).
12. Agnes Callamard, Introduction TO AMNESTY INT’L PUBLICATIONS & THE INT’L CTR. FOR HUMAN RIGHTS & DEMOCRATIC DEV., INVESTIGATING WOMEN’S RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN ARMED CONFLICTS (2001).
13. Christine M. Chinkin, Gender-related Violence and International Criminal Law and Justice, in THE OXFORD COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE 75 (Antonio Cassese, ed. 2009).
14. Christine Chinkin, Gender-Related Crimes: A Feminist Perspective, in FROM SOVEREIGN IMPUNITY TO INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY: THE SEARCH FOR JUSTICE IN A WORLD OF STATES (Ramesh Thakur & Peter Malcontent eds., 2004).
15. Jane Connors, Violence Against Women, in SOURCEBOOK ON FEMINIST JURISPRUDENCE 558 (Hilaire Barnett ed., 1997).
16. ASHLEY DALLMAN, PROSECUTING CONFLICT-RELATED SEXUAL VIOLENCE AT THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2009).
17. Sheila Dauer, Indivisible or Invisible, Women’s Human Rights in the Public and Private sphere, In WOMEN, GENDER AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE (Majorie Agosin ed., 2001).
18. ANNE-MARIE DE BROUWER, SUPRANATIONAL CRIMINAL PROSECUTION OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE: THE ICC AND THE PRACTICE OF THE ICTY AND THE ICTR (Intersentia, 2005).
19. EGODI ECHENDI, WOMEN AND CONFLICT IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR (Africa World Press ed., 2007).
20. ENLOE, GLOBALISATION AND MILITARISM: FEMINISTS MAKE THE LINK, (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2007).
21. MADOKA FUTAMURA, WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE: THE TOKYO TRIAL AND THE NUREMBURG LEGACY (Routledge ed., 2008).
22. JUDITH GARDAM & MICHELLE JARVIS, WOMEN, ARMED CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 253 (2001).
23. CHRISTOPHER K. HALL, SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT PROSECUTORIAL POLICY AND STRATEGY AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS (2003).
24. Michelle Jarvis, An Emerging Gender Perspective on International Crimes, in INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CASE LAW OF THE ICTY 157 (Gideon Boas & William A. Schabas eds., 2003).
25. Eve La Haye, Article 8(2)(b)(xxii) – Rape, Sexual Slavery, Enforced Prostitution, Forced Pregnancy, Enforced Sterilisation, and Sexual Violence, in THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: ELEMENTS OF CRIMES AND RULES OF PROCEDURE AND EVIDENCE 184 (Roy S. Lee ed., 2001).
26. GAELLE BRETON LE-GOFF, COALITION FOR WOMEN’S HUMAN RIGHTS IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS, ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN SEXUAL VIOLENCE PROSECUTIONS IN INDICTMENTS BY THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA (ICTR) FROM NOVEMBER 1995 TO NOVEMBER 2002 (2002).
27. SUSAN MCKAY & DYAN MAZURANA, WHERE ARE THE GIRLS? GIRLS IN FIGHTING FORCES IN NORTHERN UGANDA, SIERRA LEONE AND MOZAMBIQUE: THEIR LIVES DURING AND AFTER WAR (2004).
28. L. H. MALKKI, PURITY AND EXILE: VIOLENCE, MEMORY, AND NATIONAL COSMOLOGY AMONG HUTU REFUGEES IN TANZANIA (University of Chicago ed., 1995).
29. CHISECHE MIBENGE, SEX AND INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNALS: THE ERASURE OF GENDER FROM THE WAR NARRATIVE (University of Pennsylvania Press; 1st ed. 2013).
30. RETHINKING RAPE LAW: INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES (Clare McGlynn & Vanessa E. Munro eds., 2010).
31. RAKIYA OMAR ET AL., AFRICAN RIGHTS & REDRESS, SURVIVORS AND POST-GENOCIDE JUSTICE IN RWANDA (2008).
32. NOELLE N.R. QUENIVET, SEXUAL OFFENCES IN ARMED CONFLICT & INTERNATIONAL LAW 77 (2005).
33. RUTH RUBIO-MARIN, THE GENDER OF REPARATIONS: UNSETTLING SEXUAL HIERARCHIES WHILE REDRESSING HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS (2009).
34. Yasmin Saikia, War as History, Humanity in Violence: Men, Women, and Memories of 1971, East Pakistan/Bangladesh, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT ZONES: FROM THE ANCIENT WORLD TO THE ERA OF HUMAN RIGHTS (Elizabeth D. Heinemann ed., 2009).
35. Susan R. Sanday, The Socio-cultural Context of Rape: a Cross-cultural Study, in GENDER VIOLENCE: INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES (Laura O’tolle & Jessica Schiffman eds., New York University Press ed., 1997).
36. Sara Sharratt, Voices of Court Members: a Phenomenological Journey. The Prosecution of Rape and Sexual Violence at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the Bosnian War Crimes Court (BIH) in SEXUAL VIOLENCE AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRIME: INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES (Anne-Marie de Brouwer, KU Charlotte, Renee Romkens, Larissa Van Den eds., 2012).
37. GERRY SIMPSON, LAW, WAR AND CRIME: WAR CRIMES TRIAL AND THE REINVENTION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (Cambridge: Polity, 2007).
38. Helene J. Sinnreich, The Rape of Jewish Women during the Holocaust, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST JEWISH WOMEN DURING THE HOLOCAUST (Sonja M. Hedgepeth & Rochelle G. Saidel ed., 2010).
39. Sandesh Sivakumaran, Prosecuting Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRIME: INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES, (Anne-Marie de Brouwer, KU Charlotte, Renee Romkens, Larissa Van Den eds., 2012).
40. Miryam Sivan, Stoning the Messenger: Yehiel Dinur’s House of Dolls and Piepel, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST JEWISH WOMEN DURING THE HOLOCAUST (Sonja M. Hedgepeth & Rochelle G, Saidel ed., 2010).
41. Robert Sommer, Sexual Exploitation of Women in Nazi Concentration Camp Brothels, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST JEWISH WOMEN DURING THE HOLOCAUST (Sonja M. Hedgepeth & Rochelle G Saidel ed. 2010).
42. Cate Steins, “Gender Issues” IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: THE MAKING OF THE ROME STATUTE (Roy S. Lee, ed. 1999).
43. Alexandra Stiglmayer, The rapes in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in MASS RAPE: THE WAR AGAINST WOMEN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press ed., 1994).
44. Silke Studzinsky, Victims of Sexual and Gender-based Crimes before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Challenges of Rights to Participation and Protection, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRIME : INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES (Anne-Marie de Brouwer, KU Charlotte, Renee Romkens, Larissa Van Den eds., 2012).
45. M. THURSHEN & C. TWAGIRAMARIYA, WHAT WOMEN DO IN WARTIME. GENDER AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA (Zed Books ed., 1998).
46. Yuma Totani, Legal Responses to World War II Sexual Violence: The Japanese Experience, in SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT ZONES: FROM THE ANCIENT WORLD TO THE ERA OF HUMAN RIGHTS (Elizabeth D. Heinemann ed. 2011).
47. Meredith Turshen. The political Economy of Rape: An Analysis of Systematic Rape and Sexual Abuse of Women during Armed conflict in Africa, in VICTIMS, PERPETRATORS OR ACTORS? GENDER, ARMED CONFLICT AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE (Caroline O.N. Moser & Fiona C. Clark ed., 55-68. London: Zed 2001).
48. JANNEKE VAN GOG, COMING BACK FROM THE BUSH: GENDER, YOUTH AND REINTEGRATION IN NORTHERN SIERRA LEONE (African Studies Centre 2008).
49. Beth Van Schaack, Engendering Genocide: Akayesu and the Affirmation of Genocidal Rape, in HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCACY STORIES (Deena R. Hurwitz et al. eds., 2008).
50. Patricia V. Sellers, “The Context of Sexual Violence: Sexual Violence as Violations of International Humanitarian Law” in SUBSTANTIVE AND PROCEDURAL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: THE EXPERIENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL COURTS 263 (Gabrielle Kirk McDonald & Olivia Swaak-Goldman, eds. 2000).
51. Patricia V. Sellers, “The Other Voices: Interpreters and Investigators of Sexual Violence in International Criminal Prosecutions” in LISTENING TO THE SILENCES: WOMEN AND WAR (Helen Durham & Tracey Gurd, eds. 2005).
52. Patricia Viseur Sellers, Individual(s’) Liability for Collective Sexual Violence, in GENDER AND HUMAN RIGHTS 153 (Karen Knop ed., 2004).
53. Patricia V. Sellers, The “Appeal” of Sexual Violence: Akayesu/Gacumbitsi Cases, in CENTER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN AFRICA: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE CONTINENT.
54. GERHARD WERLE, PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 44–45 (2005).
55. DUBRAVKA ZARKOV, MEDIA, ETHNICITY AND GENDER IN THE BREAK-UP OF YUGOSLAVIA (Duke University Press, 2007).
56. Dubravska Zarkov, The body of the Other Man: Sexual Violence and the Construction of Masculinity, Sexuality and Ethnicity in the Croatian Media, in CAROLINE O.N. MOSER & FIONA CLARK, VICTIMS, PERPETRATORS OR ACTORS ? GENDER, ARMED CONFLICT AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE (Zed Books ed., 2001).

REPORTS:
1. Amnesty International, This is What we Demand, Justice!’ Impunity for Sexual Violence against Women in Colombia’s Armed Conflict, in AMR (2011), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e7aca322.html.
2. INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: CLARIFYING THE SCOPE OF THE CRIME OF RAPE, Amnesty International (2009).
3. AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, COLOMBIA: HIDDEN FROM JUSTICE. IMPUNITY FOR CONFLICT-RELATED SEXUAL VIOLENCE, A FOLLOW-UP REPORT, 4 AMR (2012), available online.
4. Katy Glassborow, Inst. For War & Peace Reporting, ICC Investigative Strategy Under Fire, in SPECIAL REPORT: SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO 8 (Caroline Tosh & Yigal Chazan eds., 2008).
5. HEALTH & CMTY. DEV. SECTION, U.N. HIGH COMM’R FOR REFUGEES, HOW TO GUIDE: SEXUAL AND GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE PROGRAMME IN LIBERIA 7–8 (2001).
6. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, WE’LL KILL YOU IF YOU CRY: SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE SIERRA LEONE CONFLICT (2003), available at http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/sierleon0103.pdf.
7. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, SHATTERED LIVES: SEXUAL VIOLENCE DURING THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE AND ITS AFTERMATH 24 (1996).
8. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, ABDUCTED AND ABUSED: RENEWED CONFLICT IN NORTHERN UGANDA, 15 Hum. Rts. Watch 12(A) (2003).
9. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH. GETTING AWAY WITH MURDER, MUTILATION, RAPE: NEW TESTIMONY FROM SIERRA LEONE (Human Rights Watch ed., 1999), available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/sierra/
10. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, SHATTERED LIVES: SEXUAL VIOLENCE DURING THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE AND ITS AFTERMATH (Human Rights Watch ed., 1996), available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/1996/Rwanda.htm.
11. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, SOLDIERS WHO RAPE, COMMANDERS WHO CONDONE: SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND MILITARY REFORM IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (2009), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a5efe262.html
12. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, SEEKING JUSTICE: THE PROSECUTION OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE CONGO WAR 7 (2005), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/42c3bcfa0.html
13. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, MY HEART IS CUT – SEXUAL VIOLENCE BY REBELS AND PRO- GOVERNMENT FORCES IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE 2 (Volume 19, No. 11(a) 2007), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/46b715c82.html
14. INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC), WOMEN IN ARMED VIOLENCE IN AFRICA (Le Mag Humanitaire No. 4, 2012), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/504dbb852.html
15. INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, FOR JUSTICE AND REPARATION FREE OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN RELATION TO SEXUAL HEALTH AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE DURING THE ARMED CONFLICT (2007), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/46f146a12.html
16. LaShawn R. Jefferson, In War as in Peace: Sexual Violence and Women’s Status, in HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH WORLD REPORT 325 (2004), available at http://www.hrw.org/legacy/wr2k4/download/wr2k4.pdf.
17. JUST DETENTION INTERNATIONAL. FACTSHEET: LGBTQ DETAINEES CHIEF TARGETS FOR SEXUAL ABUSE IN DETENTION. Los Angeles: Just Detention International 2009.
18. MEDICA MONDIALE, THE TROUBLE WITH RAPE TRIALS VIEWS OF WITNESSES, PROSECUTORS AND JUDGES ON PROSECUTING SEXUALISED VIOLENCE DURING THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. The Bangladesh Genocide and the Issue of Justice International Conference, Heidelberg (July 4).
19. BINAIFER NOWROJEE, U.N. RESEARCH INST. FOR SOC. DEV., YOUR JUSTICE IS TOO SLOW: WILL THE ICTR FAIL RWANDA’S RAPE VICTIMS? 1 (2005).
20. BINAIFER NOWROJEE ET AL., HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, RWANDA: SHATTERED LIVES—SEXUAL VIOLENCE DURING THE RWANDAN GENOCIDE 103 (1996).
21. PHYSICIANS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, WAR-RELATED SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN SIERRA LEONE: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT (2000).
22. REFUGEES INTERNATIONAL, SOUTH SUDAN: INVESTIGATING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT PROVES CHALLENGING, 18 (2013), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/51c198334.html
23. ANNEMIEK RICHTERS, SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN WARTIME: PSYCHI-SOCIOCULTURAL WOUNDS TRAUMA OF WAR 112-28 (Patrick J. Bracken & Celia Petty eds., 1998).
24. Gundhild Schwitalla & Luisa Maria Dietrich, Sexual violence: Demobilisation of female ex-combatants in Colombia, in FMR 27 (2007), available at http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR27/39.pdf.
25. KIMBERLEY THEIDON & PHENICIE KELLY, GENDER, CONFLICT, AND PEACEBUILDING, US INSTITUTE OF PEACE 26 (2011), available at http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/PW76_Gender_Conflict_and_Peacebuilding.pdf.
26. Melanie Teff & Camilla Campisi, Preventing sexual violence, in FMR 36 (2010), available at http://www.fmreview.org/en/DRCongo/16-17.pdf.
27. Florence Tercier Holst-Roness, Conflict-driven violence against girls in Africa, in FMR 27 (2007), available at http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR27/15.pdf
28. Katie Thomas, Sexual violence: Weapon of War, in FMR 27, (2007), available at http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR27/08.pdf.
29. MATS UTAS, SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICA, NAI POLICY NOTES 2009/2 – THE NORDIC AFRICA INSTITUTE PUBL. (authored with Fanny Rudén 2009), available at http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?id=97602&lng=en.
30. UN SECRETARY-GENERAL (UNSG), SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT: REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL 14 (2013), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/5167bd0f4.html.
31. UN DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN (UNIFEM), ADDRESSING CONFLICT-RELATED SEXUAL VIOLENCE: AN ANALYTICAL INVENTORY OF PEACEKEEPING PRACTICE 30 (2010), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c2c3c842.html.
32. UN SUB-COMMISSION ON THE PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, SYSTEMATIC RAPE, SEXUAL SLAVERY AND SLAVERY-LIKE PRACTICES DURING ARMED CONFLICT 22 (Gay J. McDougall, Special Rapporteur, 1998), available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f44114.html.
33. MARTA CULLBERG WESTON, WAR IS NOT OVER WITH THE LAST BULLET: OVERCOMING OBSTACLES IN THE HEALING PROCESS FOR WOMEN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA (Stockholm: Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation ed., 2002).
34. WOMEN’S INITIATIVES FOR GENDER JUSTICE, GENDER IN PRACTICE: GUIDELINES & METHODS TO ADDRESS GENDER-BASED CRIME IN ARMED CONFLICT (2005).
35. WOMEN’S INITIATIVES FOR GENDER AND JUSTICE, SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE AD HOC TRIBUNAL’S JURISPRUDENCE & THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT’S ELEMENTS OF CRIMES (2005).
36. WOMEN’S INITIATIVE FOR GENDER JUSTICE, ADVANCE PRELIMINARY REPORT-STRUCTURES AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT 6 (2009), available at http://www.iccwomen.org/news/docs/Advance_Preliminary_Report-Web_Final.pdf.
37. WOMEN’S INITIATIVES FOR GENDER JUSTICE, MAKING A STATEMENT: A REVIEW OF CHARGES AND PROSECUTIONS FOR GENDER-BASED CRIMES BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (2008), available at http://www.iccwomen.org/publications/articles/docs/MakingAStatement-Web_Final.pdf.
38. Nona Zicherman, Addressing Sexual violence in Post-Conflict Burundi, in FMR 27, (2007), available at http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR27/32.pdf.
39. SUSANNE ZWINGEL, GENDERED RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WAR AND PEACE: STRATEGIES OF POLITICAL, SOCI-ECONOMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN POST-WAR GERMANY, Presented at the 100th annual meeting for the American Political Science Association (2004).

GENDER JURISPRUDENCE AND
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW PROJECT

American University Washington College of Law
4801 Massachusetts Avenue, NW - Washington, DC 20016