Responses of International Law to Conflict-Based Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
Sample Syllabus Compiled by the Gender Jurisprudence Collections Project

Introduction and Goals of the Course

Schedule of Classes and Assignments

Topic 1: The Impact of Conflict on Women Defining Gender
• Judith Gardam and Michelle Jarvis, WOMEN, ARMED CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW, Ch. 2 (2001).
• Dara Kay Cohen, Amelia Hoover Green, and Elisabeth Jean Wood, Wartime Sexual Violence
Misconceptions, Implications, and Ways Forward, United States Institute of Peace Special Report 323
(February 2013).
• Valerie Oosterveld, The Definition of “Gender” in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court:
A Step Forward or Back for International Criminal Justice, 18 HARVARD HUM. RTS J. 55, 66-71 (2005).
• Katherine G. Southwick, Srebrenica as Genocide? The Krstić Decision and the Language of the
Unspeakable, 192 YALE H.R. AND DEVELOPMENT L.J. 188, 192-195 (2005).

Topic 2: Introduction to International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law
• Van Schaack, B., & Slye, R, INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW AND ITS ENFORCEMENT, 219-224, 245-256, 268-278, 290-292 (2007).
• Van Schaack, B., & Slye, Defining International Criminal Law (Santa Clara Law Digital Commons, 2007).
• Podgor, E. & Clark, R., UNDERSTANDING INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 157-160, 167-182 (2008).

Topic 3: Women in International Humanitarian Law
• Judith Gardam and Michelle Jarvis, WOMEN, ARMED CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW, Ch. 3 (2001).
• Helen Durham, International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Women, in LISTENING TO THE
SILENCES: WOMEN AND WAR 100-105 (H. Durham and Tracey Gurd, eds., 2005).
• Addressing the Needs of Women Affected by Armed Conflict: An ICRC Guidance Document, 5-14
• Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children During Armed Conflict, UNGA Res 3318 (XXIX)
of 14 December 1974.

Topic 4: Women as Combatants
Women in Detention – Civilian Internees, POWs
• Penny Cummings, Combat Operations in Iraq: An Australian Soldier’s Perspective, LISTENING TO THE SILENCES: WOMEN AND WAR (Helen Durham & Tracy Gurd, eds., 2005).
• Lucinda Peach, Women at War: The ethics of women in combat, 15 HAMLINE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC LAW AND POLICY 199 – 241 (2000).
• Claudette Roulo, Defense Department Expands Women’s Combat Role, American Forces Press Service (Jan. 24, 2013).
• David F. Burrelli, Women in Combat: Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (May 9, 2013).
• Anna Mulrine, Women in combat no later than 2016, Pentagon says, Christian Science Monitor ( July 25, 2013)
• Charlotte Lindsey, Women and war: the detention of women in wartime 83 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 505 – 520 (2001).
• Alexandra Hemmerly-Brown, Female POWs prove women can endure war’s hardships, US Army (Mar. 31, 2011), available at

Topic 5: Feminist Critiques of International Law and International Humanitarian Law
• Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin, THE BOUNDARIES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW: A FEMINIST ANALYSIS 23-61 (2000).
• Judith Gardam and Michelle Jarvis, WOMEN, ARMED CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW, Ch. 4 (2001).
• Judith Gardam, Women and Armed Conflict: The Response of International Humanitarian Law, in
LISTENING TO THE SILENCES: WOMEN AND WAR 109-123 (H. Durham and Tracey Gurd, eds., 2005).
• Helen Durham and Katie O’Brien, The Dialogue of Difference: Gender Perspectives on International
Humanitarian Law, INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS 31-52 (March 2010). 2

Topic 6: International Prosecution of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Historical Development
• Patricia Viseur-Sellers, The Context of Sexual Violence: Sexual Violence as Violations of International
• Theodore Meron, Rape as a Crime under International Humanitarian Law, 87 AJIL 424 (1993) (excerpts).

Topic 7: Case Study: The “Comfort Women”
• Jan Ruff-O’Herne, Fifty Years of Silence: Cry of the Raped, in Listening to the Silences: Women and War 3 (H. Durham and Tracey Gurd, eds., 2005).
• Kelly Askin, Shifting Shame and Stigma from Victim to Victimizers, 1 INTL. CRIM. L. REV. 2 (2001).
• The Prosecutors and the Peoples of the Asia-Pacific Region v. Japan et al., Case NO. PT-200-1-T,
Judgment (Dec. 4, 2001) (excerpts).

Topic 8: Advances and Challenges to International Prosecution of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
• Prosecutor v Kunarac, Vukovic and Kovac, ICTY Judgment of 22 February 2001, Trial Chamber: paras. 1-11, 48-75, 141-159, 746-782; Appeals Chamber Judgment of June 12, 2002: paras 125-133, 272-282.
• Maria Grahn Farley, The Politics of Inevitability: An Examination of Janet Halley’s Critique of the Criminalisation of Rape as Torture, in FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW 109-129 (Sari Kuovo and Zoe Peterson eds., 2011).
• Kiran Grewal, The Protection of Sexual Autonomy under International Criminal Law, 10 J. INT’L CRIM. J. 373 (2012).
• Valerie Oosterveld,, Gender and the Charles Taylor Case at the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 19 WM. & MARY J. WOMEN & L. 7-28, 30-32 (2012).
• Susana SáCouto and Katherine Cleary, Importance of Effective Investigation of Sexual Violence and Gender-Based Crimes at the International Criminal Court, 17 J. OF GENDER, SOCIAL POL’Y & L. 339, 347-359 (2009) (excerpts).

Topic 9: “Genocidal Rape”: Women as Agents of Violence
• Beth Van Schaack, Engendering Genocide: Akayesu and the Affirmation of Genocidal Rape HUMAN
RIGHTS ADVOCACY STORIES (Forthcoming Foundation Press 2008); Santa Clara University School of
Law, Legal Studies Research Papers Series, Working Paper No. 08-55, July 2008.
• Mark Drumbl, “She Makes Me Ashamed to be a Woman”: The Genocide Conviction of Pauline
Nyiramasuhuko, MICHIGAN J. INT’L L. (2013)
• Prosecutor v. Gbagbo, ICC-02/11-01/12, Warrant of Arrest for Simone Gbagbo (Feb. 29, 2012).

Topic 10: Prosecuting Sexual and Gender-Based Violence at the International Criminal Court
• Susana SáCouto, Perspectives on Crimes of Sexual Violence in International Law: Advances and Challenges at the International Criminal Court, ILSA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW (forthcoming 2013)
• Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice, Statement on the ICC Decision to Omit Charges for Gender- Based Crimes against Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo (2009), available at—PTC-Decision-on-Bemba.pdf.
• Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice, First acquittal by the ICC: The Prosecutor v. Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, Press Release (Dec. 18, 2012), available at Release–final.pdf.
• Fionnuala Ni Aoláin, Gendered Harms and their Interface with International Criminal Law: Norms, Challenges and Domestication, University of Minnesota Law School Legal Studies Research Paper Series Research Paper No. 13-19, 20-27 (2013).

Topic 11: Participation of Survivors of Sexual or Gender Violence in International/ized Criminal Proceedings: Step Forward or Step Back?
• Nicola Henry, Witness to Rape: The Limits and Potential of International War Crimes Trials for Victims
of Wartime Sexual Violence, 1 INT’L J. OF TRANSITIONAL J. 114 (2009).
• Susana SáCouto, Victim Participation at the International Criminal Court and the Extraordinary
Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: A Feminist Project, MICHIGAN J. GENDER & L. 1, 18-28 (2012).
• Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice, 2012 GENDER REPORT CARD ON THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL
COURT, 248-283 (November 2012).

Topic 12: Women in Conflict Resolution and Peace-Building
• UNSC Resolution 1325 (2000).
• UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008).
• UNSC Resolution 1888 (2009).
• UNSC Resolution 1889 (2009).
• UNSC Resolution 1960 (2010).
• UNSC Resolution 2106 (2013).
• Natalie Florea Hudson, UNSCR 1325: The Challenges of Framing Women’s Rights as a Security Matter,
Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Center Policy Brief (February 2013).
• Diane Otto, Power and Danger: Feminist Engagement with International Law through the UN Security
Council, 32 AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST L.J. 97 (2010).


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